Note: In November 2019, I have added a new section to the bibliography on Imperial Religion


I Context: Bible and Church in Empire

A Caesar and his Empire of Rome

1 Imperial Religion

a Biographies of Augustus

Augustus- the First Emperor: Anthony Everitt  B

Augustus- Introduction to the Life of an Emperor: Karl Galinsky

Augustus- Image and Substance Barbara Levick  2014

Augustus- First Emperor of Rome ADRIAN GOLDSWORTHY  2014

Augustus- The Biography: Jochen Bleicken,  2015

Augustus: John Williams   2014

Augustus- Son of Caesar: Richard Foreman  2018

b Imperial Religion

The Aeneid (Vintage Classics) by Virgil and Robert Fitzgerald 1990

The Complete Works of Horace: Odes, Epodes, Satires, Epistles, and Art by Quintus Horatius Flaccus and Christopher Smart  2017

Fasti by Ovid  (Author), Anne Wiseman (Author), Peter Wiseman (Author)

Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor Volume I: The Celts in Anatolia and the Impact of Roman Rule by Stephen Mitchell

The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, 3 Volumes by Duncan Fishwick  2002

Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult by Jeffrey Brodd and Jonathan L. Reed 2011

Religions of Rome: A History in 3 Volumes by Mary Beard   1998

The Roman Imperial Cult: Emperor Anastasius I: A Practical Manual for the Worship of the Divine Emperor by Marcus Julianus

From Jupiter to Christ: On the History of Religion in the Roman Imperial Period by Jörg Rüpke

Emperor Worship and Roman Religion (Oxford Classical Monographs) by Ittai Gradel  2004

Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor 1st Edition by S. R. F. Price

The Lord of the Entire World by Joseph Fantin

c Histories

The Age of Augustus: Edited by Karl Galinsky  2005

Augustus and the Creation of the Roman Empire A Brief History with Documents: Ronald Mellor 2006

2 Biblical Scholarship on Empire

The Roman Empire and the New Testament: An Essential Guide,  Warren Carter  2009

The World of the New Testament: Cultural, Social, and Historical Contexts, Joel Green and Lee McDonald, (eds) 2013

God and Empire: Jesus Against Rome, Then and Now, John Dominic Crossan 2009

Christ and Empire: From Paul to Postcolonial Times,  Joerg Rieger, 2007.

Christian Origins: A People’ History of Christianity, Richard Horsley ed 2005

Being the Church in the Midst of Empire, Karen L. Bloomquist 2005

Christian Origins and Greco-Roman Culture: Social and Literary Contexts for the New Testament , Stanley E. Porter and Andrew W. Pitts 2012

Empire and the Christian Tradition: New Readings of Classical Theologians, Kwok Pui Lan and Joerg Rieger 2007

Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire: The Development of Christian Discourse, Averil Cameron 1991

The New Testament in Antiquity: A Survey of the New Testament within Its Cultural Context, Gary Burge, Lynn Cohick, and Gene Green 2010

Honor, Patronage, Kinship & Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, David deSilva 2000 

B Jesus and his Kingdom of God

 Subversive Meals: An Analysis of the Lord’s Supper under Roman Domination during the First Century,  R. Alan Streett 2013

Caesar and the Sacrament Baptism: A Rite of Resistance, R. Alan Streett 2018

Holy Subversion: Allegiance to Christ in an Age of Rivals, Trevin Wax 2010

Subverting the Devil’s Kingdom 24/7, Jared Moore 2012

Subversive Christianity Imaging God in a Dangerous Time Second Edition, Brian Walsh

To Caesar What Is Caesar’s: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine, Fabian Udoh  2005

Empire Baptized- How the Church Embraced What Jesus Rejected: 2nd – 5th Centuries,  Wes Howard-Brook 2016

God’s Reign and the End of Empires, Antonio Gonzales 2012 

II Text: New Testament in the Empire Setting

A General

In the Shadow of Empire: Reclaiming the Bible as a History of Faithful Resistance, Richard Horsley (ed) 2008

Empire in the New Testament, Stanley Porter Cynthia Westfall (eds) 2011

An Introduction to Empire in the New Testament, Adam Winn (ed) 2016

Theology of the Old Testament, Walter Brueggemann 2012

The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, Norman Gottwald 1979

The Bible and Liberation, Gottwald and Horsley 1993

Come Out, My People! God’s Call out of Empire in the Bible and Beyond, Wes Howard-Brook 2012

B Specific book(s) of the New Testament

Matthew and Empire: Initial Explorations, Warren Carter 2001

Matthew and the Margins: A Sociopolitical and Religious Reading,  Warren Carter 2013

Binding the Strong Man: A Political Reading of Mark’s Story of Jesus, Ched Myers 1987

Discourses of Empire: The Gospel of Mark from a Postcolonial Perspective, Hans Leander 2013 

Liberation from Empire: Demonic Possession and Exorcism in the Gospel of Mark, Cheryl Pero 2013 

The Roman Empire in Luke’s Narrative, Kazuhiko Yamazaki-Ransom 2010

Luke’s Jesus in the Roman Empire and the Emperor in the Gospel of Luke, Pyung Soo Seo 2015

Status Reversals and Hidden Transcripts in the Gospel of Luke, Amanda Miller 2014

Luke-Acts and Empire: Essays in Honor of Robert L. Brawley 2011

The Kingdom according to Luke and Acts: A Social, Literary, and Theological Introduction, Karl Kuhn 2015

John and Empire: Initial Explorations, Warren Carter  2008

John’s Gospel in the New Perspective: Christology and the Realities of Roman Power, Richard Cassidy 1992

Greater Than Caesar: Christology and Empire in the Fourth Gospel, Tom Thatcher 2009

Acts of Empire: The Acts of the Apostles and Imperial Ideology, Christine Petterson 2012

World Upside Down: Reading Acts in the Graeco-Roman Age, Kavin Rowe 2009

The Arrogance of Nations: Reading Romans in the Shadow of Empire, Neil Elliot 2008

Paul Through Mediterranean Eyes: Cultural Studies in 1 Corinthians, Kenneth E Bailey 2011

Resurrection as Anti-Imperial Gospel:  1 Thessalonians 1: 9b-10 in Context, Edward Pillar 2013

Paul and Politics: Ekklesia, household, and empire in 1 Corinthians 1-7,  Ok-Pil Kim 2011

Galatians Re-Imagined: Reading With the Eyes of the Vanquished, Brigitte Kahl 2010

Colossians Remixed: Subverting the Empire, Walsh and Keesmaat 2004

Onesimus Our Brother: Reading Religion, Race and Culture in Philemon, Matthew Johnson 2009

Picturing Paul in Empire: Imperial Image, Text and Persuasion in Colossians, Ephesians and the Pastoral Epistles,  Harry O Maier 2013

Resisting Empire: Rethinking the Purpose of the Letter to “the Hebrews”,  Jason Whitlark 2014

Conflict, Community, and Honor: 1 Peter in Social-Scientific Perspective,  John Elliott 2007

Imperial Cults and the Apocalypse of John: Reading Revelation in the Ruins,  Steven Friesen 2006

Reading Revelation Responsibly: Uncivil Worship and Witness: Following the Lamb into the New Creation, Michael Gorman 2011

No Longer at Ease: Seven Churches and the Empire: A Study of Revelation 1-3, Kent Ulery 2011

Untold Tales from the Book of Revelation: Sex and Gender, Empire and Ecology, Stephen Moore, 2014

What Does Revelation Reveal? Unlocking the Mystery,  Warren Carter  2011

Unveiling Empire: Reading Revelation Then and Now, Howard-Brook and Gwyther  2013

The Woman Babylon and the Marks of Empire: Reading Revelation with a Postcolonial
Womanist Hermeneutics, Shanell Smith 2014

III Empire in history and today

God and Empire: Jesus Against Rome, Then and Now, John Dominic Crossan 2009

The Sources of Social Power: Volume 1 A history of power from the beginning to AD 1760, Michael Mann, 2012

The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community, David C Korten 2006

The American Empire and the Commonwealth of God: A Political, Economic, Religious Statement, Griffin; Cobb; Falk; Keller. 2006

A Short History of Progress, Ronald Wright 2009

Empire and the Christian Tradition: Kwok, Compier, and Rieger 2007

This Changes Everything, Naomi Klein 2015

IV Empire context implications for the church today

The Underground Church: Reclaiming the Subversive Way of Jesus, Robin Meyers 2012

The Great Spiritual Migration: Brian McLaren

Everything Must Change: Brian McLaren

The Fall of the Church, Roger Haydon Mitchell 2013

Underground Church: A Living Example of the Church in Its Most Potent Form, Brian Sanders and Alan Hirsch 2018

V Supplementary issues

A Jesus and the Empire

Jesus and Politics: Confronting the Powers, Alan Storkey  2005

Pax Romana and the Peace of Jesus Christ, Klaus Wengst 1987

Jesus, Justice and the Reign of God, William Herzog 1999

Prophet and Teacher: An Introduction to the Historical Jesus, William Herzog 2005

Render to Caesar: Jesus, the Early Church, and the Roman Superpower, Christopher Bryan  2005

Parables as Subversive Speech: Jesus as Pedagogue of the Oppressed, William Herzog 1994

Jesus and the Spiral of Violence, Richard Horsley 1993

Jesus and Empire: The Kingdom of God and the New World Disorder,  Richard Horsley 2002

Jesus in Context: Power, People, and Perfomance Richard Horsley  2008

Jesus and the Powers: Conflict, Covenant, And The Hope Of The Poor, Richard Horsley  2012

The Prophet Jesus and the Renewal of Israel, Richard Horsley 2012

Jesus and the Politics of Roman Palestine, Richard Horsley  2013

The Politics of Jesus: Rediscovering the True Revolutionary Nature of Jesus’ Teachings and How They Have Been Corrupted, Obery Hendricks  2006

ReJesus: A Wild Messiah for a Missional Church, Frost and Hirsch 2008

The Politics of Jesus, John Howard Yoder 1972

Jesus, the Galilean Exorcist: His Exorcisms in Social and Political Context, Amanda Witmer 2014 

The Social Gospel of Jesus, Bruce Malina  2001

The Social World of Jesus and the Gospels, Bruce J. Malina 2002

John, Jesus, and the Renewal of Israel, Horsley and Thatcher 2013

B Paul and the Empire

Apostle to the Conquered: Re-imagining Paul’s Mission, Davina Lopez 2008

In Search of Paul: How Jesus’ Apostle Opposed Rome’s Empire with God’s Kingdom, John Dominic Crossan  2009

The First Paul: Reclaiming the Radical Visionary Behind the Church’s Conservative Icon, John Dominic Crossan and Marcus Borg  2009

Reading Paul in Context: Explorations in Identity Formation,  Kathy Ehrensperger 2013

Paul and Empire: Religion and Power in Roman Imperial Society, Richard Horsley 1997

Paul and the Roman Imperial Order, Richard Horsley 2004

Liberating Paul, Neil Elliott 2006

The Colonized Apostle: Paul Through Postcolonial Eyes, Christopher Stanley 2011

Transient Apostle: Paul, Travel, and the Rhetoric of Empire, Timothy Marquis 2013

Paul and the Faithfulness of God, N T Wright 2013

The Politics of Heaven: Women, Gender, and Empire in the Study of Paul, Joseph Marchal  2008

C Methodology

What is Social-Scientific Criticism?, John Elliott 1993 

The New Testament: Methods and Meanings, Warren Carter; Amy-Jill Levine 2013

Religion, Theology, and Class: Fresh Engagements after Long Silence, Joerg Rieger  2013

D The Powers

Message and the Kingdom: How Jesus and Paul Ignited Revolution and Transformed the Ancient World,  Richard Horsley  2002

Hidden Transcripts And The Arts Of Resistance: Applying The Work Of James C. Scott To Jesus And Paul,, Richard Horsley  2004

Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts James C Scott 1992

The Powers That Be: A Theology for a New Millennium, Walter Wink 1998 book

Engaging the Powers: Discernment and Resistance in a World of Domination, Walter Wink 1992